Background: A number of neurological conditions have been reported to be associated with gluten sensitivity, including ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, epilepsy, and occasionally, chorea. The pathogenic role of anti-gliadin antibodies has been questioned, and pathophysiology remains controversial.
Case Report: I report chorea in a patient with celiac disease, which responded to a gluten-restricted diet. The response of the movement disorder to change in diet strongly suggests a functional role for anti-gliadin antibodies in the generation of chorea, probably involving basal ganglia targets.
Discussion: Gluten sensitivity may be a treatable cause of chorea.