Sources of Disability in Tourette Syndrome: Children vs. Adults
Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics and neuropsychiatric co-morbidities like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD), among others. In many instances tics get better with age but this is not always true regarding the psychiatric co-morbidities.
Methods: This manuscript reviews the disease-specific Quality of Life (QOL) instruments used to measure disability in TS and the existing literature on sources of functional impairment in children and adults with TS.
Results: Traditionally, disability in TS has been recorded using objective measures. In recent years there has been a development of disease-specific instruments to measure subjectively the impact of the different aspects of TS on the patient's daily function. The differential impact of tics vs. the psychiatric co-morbidities in children with TS is an issue of debate in the existing literature. In adults with TS, the literature is scant, therefore the sources of disability in this group are even less defined compared to children.
Discussion: As clinicians, we need to focus on determining the sources of disability in children and adults with TS so we can target our interventions successfully.