Improvement of Post-hypoxic Myoclonus with Bilateral Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Background: Post-hypoxic myoclonus (PHM) is a syndrome that occurs when a patient has suffered hypoxic brain injury. The myoclonus is usually multifocal and generalized, often stemming from both cortical and subcortical origins. In severe cases, pharmacological treatments with antiepileptic medications may not satisfactorily control the myoclonus.
Methods: We present a case of a 23-year-old male with chronic medication refractory PHM following a cardiopulmonary arrest related to an asthmatic attack who improved with bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). We review the clinical features of PHM, as well as the preoperative and postoperative Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale scores and DBS programming parameters in this patient and compare them with the three other published PHM-DBS cases in the literature.
Results: This patient experienced an alleviation of myoclonic jerks at rest and a 39% reduction in action myoclonus with improvement in both positive and negative myoclonus with bilateral GPi-DBS. High frequency stimulation (130 Hz) with amplitudes >2.5 V were needed for the therapeutic response.
Discussion: We demonstrate a robust improvement in a medication refractory PHM patient with bilateral GPi-DBS, and suggest that it is a viable therapeutic option for debilitating post-hypoxic myoclonus.