Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements

Video Abstracts

Arm Levitation as Initial Manifestation of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Vinícius Boaratti Ciarlariello1, Orlando G. P. Barsottini1,2, Alberto J. Espay3 & José Luiz Pedroso1,2*

1Department of Neurology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, BR 2Department of Neurology, Ataxia Unit, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, BR 3Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Background: Arm levitation is an involuntary elevation of the upper limb, a manifestation of the alien-limb phenomenon. It has rarely been reported in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), less so as an initial manifestation

Case Report: We report a 56-year-old right-handed man with rapidly progressive gait ataxia and involuntary elevation of the left upper limb. During the next few weeks, the patient developed cognitive impairment, apraxia, visual hallucinations, and myoclonus. He met diagnostic criteria for CJD. We evaluated additional published cases of early-appearance of alien-limb phenomenon in the context of CJD; there were 22 such cases and alien-limb phenomenon was the first and exclusive manifestation in only five of them.

Discussion: Arm levitation may be a distinct presentation of CJD, appearing earlier than other clinical features.

Keywords: Arm levitation, alien-limb phenomenon, acute ataxia, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, movement disorders

Citation: Ciarlariello VB, Barsottini OGP, Espay AJ, Pedroso JL. Arm levitation as initial manifestation of Creutzfeldt�Jakob disease: case report and review of the literature. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2018; 8. doi: 10.7916/D80C6CGX

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: zeluizpedroso@yahoo.com.br

Editor: Elan D. Louis, Yale University, USA,

Received: May 1, 2018 Accepted: September 12, 2018 Published: December 10, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Ciarlariello et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution–Noncommercial–No Derivatives License, which permits the user to copy, distribute, and transmit the work provided that the original authors and source are credited; that no commercial use is made of the work; and that the work is not altered or transformed.

Funding: None.

Financial Disclosures: Dr. Espay has received grant support from the NIH, Great Lakes Neurotechnologies and the Michael J Fox Foundation; personal compensation as a consultant/scientific advisory board member for Abbvie, TEVA, Impax, Acadia, Acorda, Cynapsus/Sunovion, Lundbeck, and USWorldMeds; publishing royalties from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Cambridge University Press, and Springer; and honoraria from Abbvie, UCB, USWorldMeds, Lundbeck, Acadia, the American Academy of Neurology, and the Movement Disorders Society.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors report no conflict of interest.

Ethics Statement: All patients that appear on video have provided written informed consent; authorization for the videotaping and for publication of the videotape was provided.

Introduction

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is an unusual neurodegenerative disease caused by accumulation of abnormally folded proteins (prions) with diffuse pathologic deposition, but a proclivity for the involvement of the striatum, thalamus, and cortical regions. The classic phenotype is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia associated with ataxia, myoclonus, and other movement disorders.13

Arm levitation is an involuntary elevation of the upper limb and is regarded as one of the manifestations of the alien-limb phenomenon (ALP), previously reported in CJD.4 Also, an acute or subacute presentation of ataxia in adults may rarely be the initial neurological presentation of CJD.5

In this article, we report a patient with sporadic CJD who presented with subacute ataxia and followed by arm levitation as initial manifestations. Moreover, we perform a comprehensive review of the literature about the phenomenology, classification, and associated neurological features of arm levitation in the context CJD patients.

Case report

Two months prior to presentation a 56-year-old right-handed male was evaluated in the emergency department for acute gait instability with ataxia suspected to represent a stroke. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. At the outpatient assessment, besides ataxia, he also exhibited levitation of the left arm (Video 1). Family history was unremarkable. Further questioning revealed he had exhibited progressive impairment of ataxia and cognition over the first month. On follow-up neurological examination, the patient was inattentive and disoriented to space and time. Cranial nerve examination was normal, except for spontaneous multidirectional nystagmus. There was moderate global ataxia. Over the following weeks, his gait progressively deteriorated. A repeat brain MRI was normal. Rheumatologic tests, autoimmune workup (celiac disease, thyroiditis, glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody), syphilis screen, and paraneoplastic antibodies panel were normal.

Over a 2-month period, ideomotor apraxia, visual hallucinations, dysphagia, rigidity, pyramidal features, and myoclonus with auditory stimuli exacerbation (startle myoclonus) appeared. A follow-up brain MRI showed diffusion restriction, predominantly in the right parietal cortex (cortical ribbon sign) and, caudate and putamen (Figure 1A). An electroencephalogram revealed diffuse delta activity, evolving to lateralized (right side) and diffuse periodic sharp wave complexes (Figure 1B). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was normal, except for positive 14-3-3 protein. He met diagnostic criteria for CJD and died four weeks later. No autopsy was performed.

Discussion

CJD can manifest with a range of movement disorders, including myoclonus, dystonia, tremor, parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, and ballismus. The frequency of movement disorders in CJD depends on the distribution of the pathologically affected areas and increase significantly during disease progression.3 Early manifestations may be subtle or subclinical. A rapidly progressive ataxia should trigger an investigation for vascular, autoimmune, and infectious disorders.1,5 Subacute ataxia may only rarely represent the initial neurological presentation of CJD2.

Arm levitation is a rare neurological sign, mainly described in patients with vasculopathies (infarctions, hemorrhages), tumors, seizures, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy.2,3,68 MacGowan et al.4 were the first known to report ALP in CJD patients. They described two cases of neuropathologically established CJD who presented with ALP complaints in the absence of dementia.

ALP in CJD is of the posterior or sensory type (aimless movements, arm levitation), with high localizing value to the contralateral parietal lobe, unlike the frontal type (grasping reflex, manual groping, utilization behaviors, and perseveration) or the callosal type (intermanual conflict and manual interference with purposeful movements; a “disconnection syndrome”).7,912 Associated neurological features may include hemianesthesia, homonymous hemianopsia neglect, moderate-to-severe ataxia, visuomotor dissociation and/or visuospatial deficit.8,13 Patients typically deny ownership of the movements and engage personification of the limb.8 In CJD, the posterior ALP phenotype should be considered a sign of cortical dysfunction in the non-dominant parietal cortex.2,8 The mechanism of alien-limb generation may be dependent on the disruption in the integration of multimodal sensory processing signals to motor programming areas.2,68

We evaluated additional published cases of the early appearance of ALP in the context of CJD and their clinical features since the first description in 1997 by MacGowan et al.4 We summarize these 22 cases in Table 1. ALP was the first and exclusive manifestation in only five of them (22%). Most CJD patients exhibited a left ALP due to non-dominant parietal cortical involvement (72%). The most frequent associated deficits were sensory abnormalities and gait impairment, and the most common movement disorders were myoclonus and ataxia. No dementia was documented concomitantly ALP during the initial course of the disease (only two cases reported memory or cognitive impairment as concomitant manifestation), which may have contributed to a delay in ascertaining the diagnosis of CJD. Posterior and callosal phenotypes were similarly reported, and sometimes a mixed posterior-callosal phenotype was present, but no cases of an exclusively frontal ALP pattern were found.2,8

Case, Reference Age, Handedness, Sex ALP Side, Type Associated Deficits at Onset Latency from ALP to diagnosis MRI

Abbreviations: ALP, Alien-limb Phenomenon; B, bilateral; CT, Computed Tomography; DWI, Diffusion-weighted Imaging; L, left; MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; NR, Not Reported; R, right.

*Familial CJD with neuropathology confirmation.

NR: Phenotypic description unavailable rendering ALP phenotype unclear.

1, Rubin et al.2 73, R, man L, NR Disorientation, visual hallucinations NR Cortical T2 hyperintensity (DWI not done)
2, Rubin et al.2 56, R, man L, NR Memory impairment, aphasia, tremor, sleep disturbance NR Normal
3, Rubin et al.2 58, R, woman R, NR None NR Restricted diffusion in B striatum, and left cortex
4, Rubin et al.2 69, R, man L, NR None NR Normal
5, Rubin et al.2 71, R, woman L, NR Cognitive impairment, blurred vision NR No MRI
6, Rubin et al.2 69, R, man L, NR Facial paresthesia, blurred vision NR No MRI
7, Rubin et al.2 73, unknown, man R, NR Unknown NR Normal
8, Rubin et al.2 56, unknown, woman R, NR Myoclonus, ataxia NR Restricted diffusion in B striatum and cortex
9, Rubin et al.2 61, R, man R, NR Right arm jerking NR L > R parietal restricted diffusion
10, Rubin et al.2 39, R, woman R, NR None NR Restricted diffusion in B striatum, L parietal cortex
11, Rubin et al.2 56, R, man L, NR None NR B restricted diffusion, T2 hyperintensity of R posterior hemispheric cortex
12, Rubin et al.2 71, L, woman R, posterior and callosal Gait instability NR Restricted diffusion, T2 hyperintensity of bilateral R > L parietal, occipital lobes
13, Rubin et al.2 72, R, woman L, NR Myoclonus, behavioral changes NR Diffuse cortical restricted diffusion
14, MacGowan et al.4 78, R, woman L, callosal L hemiparesis, sensory ataxia, and myoclonus NR Normal
15, MacGowan et al.4 74, R, woman L, callosal Progressive weakness 6 weeks Mild cerebral atrophy
16, Fogel et al.9 55, R, woman L, callosal Gait instability, falls, and limb ataxia 1 month Bilateral L > R restricted diffusion, T2 hyperintensity of B parietal cortex
17, Inzelberg et al.12 70, R, man L, posterior Unsteady gait, frequent falls, and visual hallucinations At least 6 weeks Mild cerebral atrophy
18, Oberndorfer et al.14 74, R, woman L, posterior L hand ataxia 3 months Non-diagnostic clues
19, Anschel et al.15 65, R, man L, callosal None 8 months Restricted diffusion in R putamen, and bilateral R > L cortex
20, Moreaud et al.16 70, unknown, woman L, callosal Upper limbs clumsiness 6 months B frontal and parietal atrophy, and cortical ribbon sign
21, Kleiner-Fisman et al.17 73, R, man L, posterior L hand ataxia and clumsiness, L hemineglect, and unsteady gait 4 weeks Restricted diffusion in R caudate nucleus, and bilateral R > L cortex
22, Avanzino et al.18 59, R, woman L, posterior L hand numbness 2 weeks Normal
23, our case 56, R, man L, posterior Gait instability and ataxia 2 months Right parietal cortex ribbon sign, Restricted diffusion in B striatum and R parietal cortex

In most arm levitation cases, gait instability or ataxia was present. The MRI findings almost invariably showed asymmetrical diffusion restriction in the striatum and parietal cortex. Of note, ALP has also been reported in pathology-confirmed familial CJD.13 The onset of arm levitation may precede the diagnosis of CJD by up to 16 weeks.2,7 Some patients have been phenotypically characterized as corticobasal syndrome, assumed to represent underlying corticobasal degeneration pathology, which is more frequent compared with CJD.2 However, the subacute presentation of arm levitation should raise suspicion for prion disease, particularly when associated with rapid onset dementia or ataxia,2,3,9 as in our case.

In conclusion, CJD must be considered in anyone presenting with arm levitation, classified as a posterior ALP, with or without associated acute or subacute ataxia.2,7,9,12

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the patient and his family for trusting their care to us and for providing informed consent for this publication.

References

1. Kim MO, Geschwind MD. Clinical update of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Curr Opin Neurol 2015;28:302–310. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000197

2. Rubin MN, Graff-Radford J, Boeve BF, Josephs KA, Aksamit AJ. The alien limb phenomenon and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012;18:842–846. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.04.009

3. Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D. Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2006;12:65–71. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004

4. MacGowan DJL, Delanty N, Petito F, Edgar M, Mastrianni J, DeArmond SJ. Isolated myoclonic alien hand as the sole presentation of pathologically established Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a report of two patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:404–407. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.63.3.404

5. Mantokoudis G, Saber Tehrani AS, Newman-Toker DE. An unusual stroke-like clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: acute vestibular syndrome. Neurologist 2015;19:96–98. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0000000000000019

6. Carrilho PEM, Caramelli P, Cardoso F, Barbosa ER, Buchpiguel CA, Nitrini R. Involuntary hand levitation associated with parietal damage: another alien hand syndrome. Arq Neuro-Psiquiatr 2001;59:521–525. doi: 10.1590/S0004-282X2001000400007

7. Graff-Radford J, Rubin MN, Jones DT, Aksamit AJ, Ahlskog JE, Knopman DS, et al. The alien limb phenomenon. J Neurol 2013;260:1880–1888. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-6898-y

8. Scepkowski LA, Cronin-Golomb A. The alien hand: cases, categorizations, and anatomical correlates. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2003;2:261–277. doi: 10.1177/1534582303260119

9. Fogel B, Wu M, Kremen S, Murthy K, Jackson G, Vanek Z. Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease presenting with alien limb sign. Move Disord 2006;21:1040–1042. doi: 10.1002/mds.20858

10. Aboitiz F, Carrasco X, Schröter C, Zaidel D, Zaidel E, Lavados M. The alien hand syndrome: classification of forms reported and discussion of a new condition. Neurol Sci 2003;24:252–257. doi: 10.1007/s10072-003-0149-4

11. Pappalardo A, Ciancio MR, Reggio E, Patti F. Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report and rehabilitative treatment. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2004;18:176–181. doi: 10.1177/0888439004269031

12. Inzelberg R, Nisipeanu P, Blumen SC, Carasso RL. Alien hand sign in Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:103–104. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.68.1.103

13. Josephs KAR, Rossor MN. Neurological sign: the alien limb. Pract Neurol 2004;4:44–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-7766.2004.06-189.x

14. Oberndorfer S, Urbanits S, Lahrmann H, Jarius C, Albrecht G, Grisold W. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease initially presenting with alien hand syndrome. J Neurol 2002;249:631–632. doi: 10.1007/s004150200077

15. Anschel DJ, Simon DK, Llinas R, Joseph JT. Spongiform encephalopathy mimicking corticobasal degeneration. Mov Disord 2002;17:606–607. doi: 10.1002/mds.10166

16. Moreaud O, Monavon A, Brutti-Mairesse MP. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mimicking corticobasal degeneration: clinical and MRI data of a case. J Neurol 2005;252:1283–1284. doi: 10.1007/s00415-005-0828-6

17. Kleiner-Fisman G, Bergeron C, Lang AE. Presentation of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease as acute corticobasal degeneration syndrome. Mov Disord 2004;19:948–949. doi: 10.1002/mds.20140

18. Avanzino L, Marinelli L, Buccolieri A, Trompetto C, Abbruzzese G. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting as corticobasal degeneration: a neurophysiological study. Neurol Sci 2006;27:118–121. doi: 10.1007/s10072-006-0611-1

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License.

The opinions expressed within this journal do not necessarily reflect those of Tremor, its staff, its advisory Boards, or affiliates, or those of Columbia University.