Generalized Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dystonic Attacks due to a Novel ATP1A3 Variant

  • Carlos Zúñiga-Ramírez
  • Mirelle Kramis-Hollands
  • Rodrigo Mercado-Pimentel
  • Héctor Alberto González-Usigli
  • Michel Sáenz-Farret
  • Alberto Soto-Escageda
  • Alfonso Fasano


Background: Paroxysmal movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurological diseases, better understood in recent years thanks to widely available genetic testing.

Case report: A pair of monozygotic twins with dystonia and paroxysmal attacks, resembling paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesias, due to a novel ATP1A3 variant are reported. The complete resolution of their paroxysms was achieved using levodopa and deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. Improvement of interictal dystonia was also achieved with this therapy.

Discussion: Paroxysmal worsening of movement disorders should be suspected as part of the ATP1A3 spectrum. Treatment outcome might be predicted based on the phenotype.

Keywords: ATP1A3, paroxysmal dyskinesia, dystonia, status dystonicus, AHC-2, rapid-onset parkinsonism-dystonia

Citation: Zúñiga-Ramírez C, Kramis-Hollands M, Mercado-Pimentel R, González-Usigli HA, Sáenz-Farret M, Soto-Escageda A, et al. Slow orthostatic tremor: review of the current evidence. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2019; 9. doi: 10.7916/tohm.v0.723